- anticlimax: 虎头蛇尾
- prevail: 流行
- hedging: 模糊的
- bjectivity: 客观的
- Static (frozen) 套话
- Formal (regulated)
- Consultative (professional/ academic) 商议的
- Casual (group)
- Personal (intimate)
- Choose a topic: interesting
- Narrow down: specific
- Paraphrase: noun phrase
1-3 Nominalization 名词化
- increase information density and facilitate efficiency and accuracy of communication.
- express abstract concepts (e.g., revolution, possibility) 描述抽象概念
- hide the agent behind an action
- improve flow of writing , maintain connections between ideas
- make writing more “written” and professional
- a simple sentence
- nominalized subject
- second verb
- finisher idea
1-4 Personal Pronouns
Avoid first and second person pronouns to be impersonal and scientific
Use gender-fair language
- Use "he or she" or "a person" instead of "he"
1-5 Word Choice and Sentence Variety
1-5-1 Word choice
Abstract and concrete words
- Abstract: loyal, love
- Concrete: battle, horse
Generral and specific words
- general: tree
- specific: southern red oak
Denotation and connotation
|primary or literal meaning||secondary or implied meanings|
|exact or surface||baggage or associations|
|tip of iceberg||impart the most meaning|
|e.g. "house"||e.g. "home"|
employs figures of speech
Choose appropriate vocabulary
- Avoid using unfamiliar synonyms 避免使用生僻的同义词，不要装逼
- Avoid slang 避免俚语
- Avoid wordiness 避免冗长
1-5-2 Sentence variety
2 Literature Review
- Information prominent citation：作者待在括号里
- Author prominent citation：作者是主语
- Weak author prominent citation：authors 是主语，一群作者待在括号里
2-1 Reviewing Literature
A literature review is a careful examination of a body of literature pointing toward the answer to your research question.
Include a critical analysis of various opinions from credible sources
2-2 Writing Literature Review
- Chronological（时间） － Trace the development of the topic over time
- Thematic（主题） － Address different aspects of the topic in subsections
- Methodological（方法） － Compare the results & conclusions from different approaches
- Theoretical（理论） － Discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.
- introduction to topic
- support from the literature
- mini summary
- introduction to next topic.
2-3 Avoiding Plagiarism（剽窃）
2-4 Reporting Verbs
|Function and strength||Example verbs|
|NEUTRAL: verbs used to say what the writer describes in factual terms, demonstrates, refers to, and discusses, and verbs used to explain his/her methodology.||describe, show, reveal, study, demonstrate, note, point out, indicate, report, observe, assume, take into consideration, examine, go on to say that, state, believe (unless this is a strong belief), mention, etc.|
|TENTATIVE: verbs used to say what the writer suggests or speculates on (without being absolutely certain).||suggest, speculate, intimate, hypothesize, moot, imply, propose, recommend, posit the view that, question the view that, postulate, etc.|
|STRONG: verbs used to say what the writer makes strong arguments and claims for.||argue, claim, emphasize, contend, maintain, assert, theorize, support the view that, deny, negate, refute, reject, challenge, strongly believe that, counter the view/argument that, etc.|
2-5 Tenses in Literature review
3 Methods and Results
3-1 The Structure of the Method Section
==Different titles of the method section==
- Materials and Methods
- Theory and Methods
- Theoretical Framework and Methods
The major elements in the method section
- The method section
- The rationales
- The fundamental reasons or principles of doing things
3-2 The Structure of the Results Section
- The statement showing where the results can be found
- The statement presenting the most important findings
- The statement commenting on the results
The order of the results
- Research questions
- Research methods
The language focuses
- Sequential markers
- Graphic descriptions
- Comparison and contrast
3-3 Sequential Markers
Importance of sequential markers
- Building up connections between ideas
- Ensuring that sentences and paragraphs flow together smoothly
3-4 Graphic Description
Description of Graphs
- Introduce the graphic information briefly and indicate the main trend. Normally it includes the place, time, content and purpose of the graph;
- Describe the relevant and most important or signi ficant data and make some comparison if necessary;
- Summarize the data/trends
Expressions for highlighting significant data in a table/chart
- some adjectives such as “apparent”, “clear”, “interesting”, “obvious”, “revealing” and “significant”
3-5 Comparison and Contrast
Two major ways of organization:
- Block comparison or block contrast（分块对比）
- To examine one thing thoroughly and then examine the other
- Alternating comparison or alternating contrast（交替对比）
- To examine two things at the same time, discussing them point by point
Tips for making comparison or contrast
- Not all the information has to be compared or contrasted with each other.
- It is not necessary to lay equal emphasis on every change.
- The comparison/contrast should be supported by concrete and relevant facts or data.
4 Discussion & Conclusion
4-1 Structure of Discussion Section
7 elements the Discussion section typically contains:
- An overview ...
- A consideration ...
- Implications ...
- A careful examination ...
- Limitations ...
- Recommendations ...
- Implications ...
4-1-2 Strategies and steps to structure the Discussion
How to begin the Discussion
- Remind readers
- Refer back to the questions
- ==Refer back to papers==
- Briefly restate ... from your Results
How to compare my work with those of others
4-2 Structure of Conclusion Section
Key elements of Conclusions section:
- a very brief revisit of the most important findings ...
- a final judgment on the importance and significance of those findings ...
- an indication of the limitations ...
- suggestions for ...
- recommendations for ...
Typical issues in structuring the Conclusion
- Redundancy: repetition of
- Raising a Totally New Point: introducing less ...
- Overstatement （夸大）: making immoderate...
- Anticlimax（虎头蛇尾）：failure to ...
Discussion sections which also have a Conclusion may end:
- Tell your readers ... But you must ... If you repeated
- Suggest ways that
- Say if and / or why you ignored
- Admit ...
- Reiterate your reasons for ...
4-3 Language Focus 1: Cause and Effect
- Identifying causes and effects
- Drafting thesis statements for causes or effects
- Tips on planning causes and effects
- Distinguish direct and indirect causes and effects.
- Group different causes and effects
- Avoid mistaking coincidence (two unrelated things happening together) for cause or effect
- Avoid oversimplification
4-4 Language Focus 2: Paraphrasing
- Plagiarism detection system
- A case of unintentional plagiarism
4-5 Language Focus 3: Strong Restatement of the Research Objective
- Two features of a strong thesis statement
- It makes a claim that requires ...
- It makes a claim that offers ...
- Five kinds of weak thesis statements
- Statements that make no claim
- Statements that are obviously true or a statement of fact
- Statements that restate conventional wisdom
- Statements that offer personal conviction as the basis for the claim
- Statements that make an overly broad claim
- the background
- the problem
- the methods
- the results
- the implications
|Giving background details||一般现在时|
|Describing the research activity||一般过去时 或 现在完成时|
|Describing the methods||一般过去时（主动或被动）|
The Types of abstracts
- Informative abstract
- Structured abstract
- 分段，每段开头为粗体的 Aim, Methods, Results, Research limitations/implications 或 Conclusion
Definition of keywords:
- standout within the Abstract
- important words in the abstract
- emphasize the key information for readers
Purpose of keywords:
- increase the probability that a paper will be read and retrieved
- potentially improve citation counts and journal impacts
- know what words reflect the key information of the paper
- read more carefully when meeting these words in the paper
- Data source
Number of keywords
- can’t be too few or many
- 3~5 in journals
- trade-off between the keywords to meet the limitation requirements for keywords
- choose the keywords from recent or often-cited titles close to their contribution
[编号]. 作者名缩写. 作者姓, “文章题目,” 斜体期刊名称, 城市, 洲, 国家, 月日, 年, 页码
作者姓, 作者名. “文章题目.” 斜体期刊名称, vol. 期刊号, no. 发行号, 发行年份, pp. 页码
- used to avoid plagiarism
- tell editors and readers what sources have been cited in the paper
- help readers to use the materials to refer to when they write papers
Standard of a good reference:
Two main types of acknowledgements
- One is in a paper, and expresses the thanks to the organizations or projects or funds.
- The other is in a dissertation（大论文） as mentioned in the first part.
5 Submitting: writing the journal submission cover letter
Why a convincing cover letter?
- Highlighting the merit and significance
- Interesting the editor
What is included in the cover letter ?
- Follow the author guide.
- include essential information
- claim the originality of the paper
What should be avoided in the cover letter?
- Don't use too much jargon and acronyms.
- Don’t exaggerate.
- Don't make it lengthy.
- Don't try to be entertaining.